"Dilmaya demonstrated 'cugu' churning. I found it quite easy, but of course there's all the work to get milk to consider. 'Cugu' is sold at 60rs. a mana. Dilmaya has sold 12 manas. Its extraordinarily white when first churned, but then its is cooked and turns a light yellow. The pots were made 25 years ago by an itinerant carver or wood-turner. Surje brought down the wood. They cost about 300rs. to turn for a big pot, less for small - about 30rs. per mana in size - plus the cost of the wood. The are made of 'dara' wood. The pot is called a 'poru' and would be turned by a Tailor or Blacksmith." (Diary 28th)

"After 'prokeh' watched Dilmaya boil the curd made in the churn yesterday. It is boiled until the liquid is clear and then left to cool. She makes a mana every six days - more in 'barka'. Today's lot was .5 mana. Talking of buffaloes or cows, only a few people have 'pro' in the forest: Chyanvae (House84) = 1 cow; Yunga = 2-3." (Diary 29th)

Video sequence:

Dilmaya starts milking. She squats holding pail between her knees

Dilmaya finishes milking, walks around buffalo

Churning 'cugu' inside house. Rope going up and down, Dilmaya's foot

Dilmaya's face as she works, her movements, the churn, 'cugu'

Cleaning the rim of the churn with water

Cleaning paddle of churn, Dilmaya's face

Cleaning paddle by hand

Bowl of 'cugu'

Taking handfuls of 'cugu' straight out of churn, into bowl

Dilmaya scraping hand on churn

Wiping churn with her hands - rubbing in 'cugu' to oil it

Dilmaya cooking up 'cugu'

Some 'cugu' falls into fire

Dilmaya stirs the pan

Dilmaya lifts burning piece of wood to look into pot and moves it off fire

Thak, 29th & 28th April 1992